What I find interesting is that Kilcullen was correct in using it---and then say John Robb fleshed it out with his standing orders and his use of the term "open source warfare" which really caused some heartburn in the various agencies. The primary purpose of the command and control warfighting function is to assist commanders in integrating then other elements of combat power (leadership, information, M2, intelligence, fires, sustainment, and protection) to achieve objectives and accomplish missions. [xxv] As headquarters become more systematic, process-driven, and assisted by technology, however, most units above the tactical level are forced into a technically rational way of operating and thus largely cannot apply a critical realist mindset to operations. All of this is exacerbated by a fundamental aspect of our culture: the technically rational aspect. His story was we had been hitting you on every patrol and on this particular day a gun truck patrol came by and I detonated--but nothing happened which was strange as they had always worked---kept trying and then when the last truck went by it detonated. [xxviii] To be fair, the writers of this first iteration of the handbook were given a very short timeframe with which to complete the project. Conduct targeting. -- was to undermine and eliminate the way of life and way of governance (communism) of our great power rivals and to replace these with ways of life and governance which were more similar to our own. B130876 Warfighting 7 Basic Officer Course . One could argue that General Lee based his operations in the North during the Civil War as a way to influence the Northern population to put pressure on President Lincoln and the US government to end the war; did he not? [xli] If SOF is to be successful at the operational and higher tactical levels, absent a personnel system that allows for flexibility and mission focus, we must incorporate at the very least a rigorous testing and experimentation program to assist us in finding the right tools and philosophical approach for operating in the human domain. The goal of our young folks today -- via for example: diplomacy, development and defense -- is to undermine and eliminate the alternative ways of life and alternative ways of governance of the lesser and remaining states and societies and to, as in the case of the great powers above, replace these with ways of life and ways of governance which are more similar to our own. I am going to steal that. He graduated from The Citadel, has an MBA from George Mason University, and an MMAS from the School of Advanced Military Studies. Secondly critical thinking ie asking all those points you mentioned above used to be the core of a SF that was based in the world of UW or what you refer to as SW. And one can use art, I'd argue, to re-imagine one's mission- all the while not straying too far outside of one's constraints. In my opinion the human domain is nothing more than observations on human nature and has always been a part of military thinking. Furthermore the village you are attempting to save has a culture that has been severely affected by decades of conflict and is somewhat different to how it once was or aspires to be. The self, the psyche, must be involved somewhere. One example is moving forces to execute a large-scale air or airborne assault. At the same time, an integrated sustainment network would link . Youve pointed out that in the recent past, US Forces chose to ignore many open source TTPs that the terrorists have put in front of our very noses in such highly visible places such as YouTube and the internet. Your comments on the VSO program reflect this human domain mistake currently being made in AFG --in the CIDG there were major differences between almost and I mean almost all camps---one did what one had to do in one's particular AO not what one was doing say in I Corp when you were in III or IV Corp in VN. The warfighting functions are the physical means that tactical commanders use to execute operations and accomplish missions assigned by superior tactical- and operational-level commanders. through seven or eight functions, the two things are ultimately quite different. And what I have been saying for years around here, using "South Asia" as one intellectual "foil", is that YOU (meaning the US military and agencies with which it works) are a part of the human domain and you cannot divorce yourselves from any of it. Can you imagine the reaction of the Indian authorities if you suggested they study Pakistani Punjab village culture in order to counter a repeat of the attack on the Taj Hotel and VT. Who says that a "human domain" warfighting function would solely be the domain of SF? Ancient pyramids inscribed with weathered glyphs and characters from the most advanced ancient alphabet in the western hemisphere now sit abandoned, obscured by centuries of jungle growth. So as we go into a country in Africa or in the Middle East or the Pacific region, were learning about them. The Inca Empire shared a fate similar to that of the Aztec, but at the hands of a conquistador more sinister than Cortez. Force Protection Intro To Classified Material Intel Community Directives Intro To Intelligence Perhaps most importantly, however, it calls for the sublime in order to harness what is natural to most SOF service members when they first enter the force, that is- critical and creative thinking, which, when added to a multi-frame approach and learning and reflecting-in-action allows greater effectiveness within the social realm of the human domain. When someone asked him a difficult question, Walt _____ because he did not know the answer. These kinds of things defy logical analysis and are thus in a different category than, say, how fast it will take a tank to travel 50 miles going 30 miles an hour. In U.S. doctrine there are today seven joint functions: intelligence, movement and maneuver, fires, information, protec- tion, sustainment, and C2. mation as a joint function is but the first step toward enhancing joint warfighting and developing a future joint force able to dominate in the conflicts of tomorrow. The rules, laws, events and mechanisms of this underlying reality are at play in all of our observable experiences and events. To illustrate how the MIE multiplier might augment the guerrillas effectiveness lets take a senior Haqqani Network (HN) commander who has designs on attacking a position in or near Khost, Paktia AF. For purposes of the definition, the term enemy includes the entire range of threats and the term terrain includes weather. Special Operations Forces (SOF) have a problem: in order to be more effective in the human domain we have to paradoxically dump the concept. [xxxiv] White, Curtis, 7. Not to compare the two leaders, but you could say the same thing about Hitler's bombing of London. [xxxvi] Surgical Strike is usually associated with Special Mission Units that conduct Counterterrorism and limited strike, short-duration Direct Action hits. At worst they are used as paradigms with which our force must use when thinking about, planning for, and acting during operations. Mission command should cascade down the ranks through the NCOs to the formations at large. As our operations have shown us, the people we are fighting are often "outsiders" themselves who just happen to be where we are because that's where they can observe and fight us. What does it mean to have a warfighting culture? Doing the SF legacy mission with none of the high selectivity. Agree with you that a deeper problem (THE problem?) No COP, firebase, airfield, etc. It accomplishes this by supporting the force to ensure it has the capacity to act and continue to act until successful achievement of the mission. b. [vi] In almost every meeting the author has attended on the 7th WfF, this anecdote is repeated, so even if GEN Odierno never said it, it has become part of the institutional narrative that he did. The danger to SOF does not lie simply with the publication of the handbook: this is simply a symptom of a larger problem. Herein, we must be prepared to deal with the vastly increased and very broad and very deep chaos (exs: rebellions, insurgencies, genocide, famine, increased crime, etc., etc., etc.) Know and define one's friends and allies. It does this through the three sub-functions of movement, manoeuvre and mobility. To this end I don't necessarily understand the distinction you make between CF and SOF. b. To boot, recent history seems to have muddied the waters on the subject. The seven warfighting functions are command and control, fires, force protection, information, intelligence, logistics, and maneuver. most important function is to build and maintain a complete, up-to-date copy of the blockchain database. He is a Ph.D. candidate at North Carolina State Universitys Public Administration program with special interest in researching the organizational obstacles within SOCOM and DoD to effective Irregular Warfare. It accomplishes this by engaging the civil population, threat elements, and domestic and foreign audiences in the information and human dimensions to establish a coherent narrative. I first noticed this in Afghanistan where a few of us sat down and attempted to make sense of the disconnect between our official pronouncements and doctrine and the reality of what commanders were doing and saying privately. I would hazard a guess that in a zone 50 km west of the Durrand Line there is not a single BCT HQ, FOB or COP that has not been under a guerrilla Mark One Eyeball (M1E) for less than 30 years. Kilcullen strangely got it right in his time in Iraq, but Gen. P misused it to establish the he won the surge comments and NOW Kilcullen is coming back to it in his latest book about seven years to late. They KNOW what our political objective is and, therefore, they KNOW who is their friend and their enemy and they KNOW what kind of war they are embarked upon. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. would be safe from effective enemy fire 24/7, versus the random attacks with dumb weapons that are normally way off the mark. Yes, this is going to be hard and it is a very complex area, but I don't think it is totally unmanageable or even unmeasurable. There was a series of great comments on the question of UW recently in Dave Maxwell's SWJ article. A WFF is a group of tasks and systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives (FM 3-0). I also don't see how managing humans, be you occupying them or sharing some skills, is a uniquely UW/SW activity. What was it we missed in our estimates of the enemy meaning long term they were finished (was not the surge success an indicator that they were finished) ---even though we got the indigenous side IE Iraqi security forces human domain right or at least we thought right. Going on offense (engagement and enlargement) re: the "different" lesser and remaining states and societies. The seven warfighting functions are command and control, fires, force protection, information, intelligence, logistics, and maneuver. The Marine Corps defines the fires warfighting function as "Fires harass, suppress, neutralize, or destroy in order to accomplish the targeting objective, which may be to disrupt, delay, limit, persuade, or influence. Knowing the enemy as well as one's self and knowing those who one works with as been always the core of SF UW training---my point has always been while we tend to most of the time get the indigenous side right---it takes us awhile but we tend to get there in the end ---we fail though completely at understanding the enemy. A warfighting function is a group of tasks and systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives. Art isnt something one does while coloring within the lines and SOF shouldnt be looking for a methodology to assist us with it. It amazes me that all of them can regurgitate the planning process perfectly with enough power point to make Bill Gates proud, but never once have they been asked to think of the implicit forces that their higher is being pressured by, the hidden agenda of the ambassador in the neighboring country, the current environment in Washington, D.C., the private life of the SOCNORTH commander--- all of those things and more can have an affect on one's mission. Maya descendants still inhabit the Yucatan, but the technology, religion, and practices of the ancient civilization must now be slowly exhumed and catalogued by archaeologists-a difficult task considering the Maya had no central ruling capital. In other words, it's special tactics in a very conventional, multi-party, though not industrial scale, war. But destroying the physical tools of war does not eliminate the reasons people fight. The difference is that equipment is easy to count, education is not. One cannot believe how many times I have heard the comment "we cannot template the insurgency"---my argument even to today was "yes we could as they were hiding nothing from us"---the CF just did not want to admit that the insurgency was a living, thinking, adapting group of people who were giving us a solid run for our money----or is anyone wanting and or willing to state we "won" the IED fight in Iraq and or AFG----Gen. P nor Nagel has ever mentioned anything on this front. If one thinks about it, the 7th WfF and the human domain, defined as the totality of the physical, cultural and social environments that influence human behavior to the extent that success of any military operation or campaign depends on the application of unique capabilities that are designed to fight and win population-centric conflicts, [xi] border on tautologies. [xxxvi] This is because, if anything, surgical strike missions are very limited in time and scope and their objectives are clear and unambiguous. It only has to be a tiny increment for the difference between 10 days and 10,000 days for the odds to stack up very heavily in HNs favor. The insurgent does not have to observe small America in order to understand our fielded units as we tended to in Iraq and AFG export our life styles into the enemies own territory making it easy for them to "know" and "understand" us. The self, the psyche, must be involved somewhere. Mr. White might be horrified to see his term associated with the military, as he is decidedly anti-militarism. We are convinced we can measure everything we do, to the extent that we talk about things like measures of effectiveness and measures of performance as if effectiveness is something one can always measure (the problem of sufficient causation and original causes). "This was true for the SF of the 60/70s---the ability to "understand the mission, understand your enemy and understand yourself" before one is dropped in with no support from the outside world.. So today we, as a nation, are facing an opponent who has recognized our power base and is determined to defeat it in such a way as to have a favorable outcome for their end state. The purpose of the Fires WFF is to engage threat elements with lethal and less-lethal joint fires and effects, usually in coordination with manoeuvring ground forces (M2 WFF). Read More What happens when the local populations finally after being brutually held down and are afraid to even come out of their houses DOES come out of their houses fully armed and willing to defend their villages/towns/cities? (take it, figure out what to do with it, apply it). The first historically recognized terrorists, the Jewish Zealots, targeted the temple priests and wealthy elites, the people who held the power. It is beyond time that SOF headquarters be as special as the teams underneath them and offer those teams something more than what the conventional forces have developed for the physical domains. The offense cannot sustain itself indefinitely. AND by the way such in house on post training does not cost an arm and a leg to conduct. RantCorp---lack of observation skills by the Force is also another problem-especially from our side--there are a number of basic infantry skill sets that have largely disappeared that no one seems to recognize. Originally a nomadic society inhabiting the central basin of antediluvian Mexico, the various tribes who identified 252525 themselves as Aztec settled in the marshy region near Lake Texcoco and, in 132513251325, founded the city of Tenochtitlan at the present site of Mexico City. Preserving the force includes protecting personnel (combatants and noncombatants) and physical assets of the United States, unified action partners, and host nations. [iii] Although I understand the argument that the domains are not separate and indeed overlap greatly as well, in addition to other arguments for or against the concept, in order to make a point I will use them in their doctrinal form. WFF are the physical means that tactical commanders use to execute operations and accomplish missions assigned by a superior commander. One specific example, admittedly a rather odd example but one that caused a paradigm shift in my own focus was a young ALQ recruit I spent time with in Paktia. This largely unconscious effect is to be expected: any large organization experiences it quite naturally. Identify the six war-fighting functions 1. Since instituting the Army Warfighting Functions, the U.S. military has worked in better partnership on joint military operations. Virtually everyone knows what our end-game objective is. I submit that art has a place in war, although many of us military types are a little uncomfortable about the word. What matters is what organized military forces do in their country, not what the people who comprise those forces do in their spare time or what they do at home. The CF and SOF officers both operate in "human domains" (can we retire this term, as it seems specious at best?) while surfing the internet and posting on such open and visible places as Facebook. The human domain implies the social realm: a dominion of non-visible abstractions that, although mostly falling outside of the scientific are nonetheless real, if real means to have an effect on others. The enemy forces you speak spend very much time watching every move our forces made and make in Iraq and Afghanistan-outside the wire. Maneuver is the means by which commanders mass the effects of combat power to achieve surprise, shock, and momentum. Indeed, all indications point to SOCOM positioning itself as America's Rapid Reaction Force, a decidedly conventional role that will bring with it its own momentum to accommodate the scale that mission requires. Army fires systems deliver fires in support of offensive and defensive tasks to create specific lethal and nonlethal effects on a target. Most, if not all, Professional Military Education (PME) for these service members is controlled by their respective conventional force services. These cookies do not store any personal information. In a broader Operational sense our inability to align Tactical success with Strategic success might stem from the possibility we are mistaking UW for Revolution, Resistance or Secession. The Armys warfighting functions link directly to the joint functions. Integrate all forms of Army, joint and multinational fires. Obviously I would give the M1E multiplier a greater weight than most but I dare suggest that seeing, smelling, hearing and even touching, talking and drinking tea with personnel within the target perimeter will boost your chances each and every day. For example, an integrated fires network would account for all of a commander's fires capabilities across all domains and quickly choose the best shooter for a specific target. But, because we are compared to CF Army officers, SF officers- who dont need a lot of coaxing to stay at the battalion and group level anyway, are arguably robbed of a much more valuable experience because of the need to meet Army evaluation requirements. Other reasons include the drawdown in manpower and money as well as the way the military institution uses concepts to try to align disparate and bureaucratic organizations towards a common goal.[xv]. We must also firmly ground and continuously educate them in critical and creative thinking. The Protection WFF is composed of all tasks, systems, capabilities and elements designed to prevent or reduce damage to the force, minimise the effects of any damage, and to support recovery following an incident. Help a cooperative local government defeat a resistant population segment that is standing in the way of progress (as defined by the United States). It is juxtaposed with Surgical Strike- the other main component for how Special Operations currently differentiate themselves. for an hour or two almost like you were back in a hotel in the states. Inca, whose feats of engineering baffle modern architects, dominated the west coast of South America from 130013001300 to 153515351535. This conundrum was fixed by the Army at Fort Leavenworth by forcing the concepts of design, an anti-methodological approach, into a methodology! Manoeuvre elements may then exploit the advantage gained through that terrain action to destroy the threat in close combat. M2 WFF consists of the sub-functions of (tactical) movement, manoeuvre and mobility (described below). Certainly an insight into the latter three can be gained from understanding the local culture. [ii] See Stan Wiechniks excellent article, Political Legitimacy and Values in the Small Wars Journal, 17 NOV 2013, for a discussion on the importance of values within the more population-centric missions as opposed to those subjects like governance normally found within our doctrine. Thus we are left with two choices: either accept that the same conceptual tools and doctrinal concepts that we use for the physical domains can be applied with some minor tweaking to the human domain or approach with at least skepticism the idea that the physical and human domains can be understood using the same paradigms. During that time the Beards would have recognized the way the conflict ecosystem changes when a man stepped on a mine, an IED flipped a vehicle and a helicopter was shot down. Another is deploying forces to intermediate staging bases in preparation for an offensive. The mission became one of democratization. Internalized change, however, is that change which comes from within- whether perceived or not. One example may assist in understanding the phenomenon. ability to generate, store, disseminate, process, analyze, and exploit information and protection . As part of capacity building, engagement with Host Nation Security Forces (HNSF) may form part of the CIMIC aspect of the IA WFF area of responsibility. Even our own COIN doctrine- which implies that that type of activity is counterproductive, cannot rescue us from the technically rational system, of which it is, ultimately, also a part of. Standardization serves a purpose in a large organization but it is stifling in small groups. Complete discussions by all ranks and ages---and we ran MDMP even in the 60s but it was creative and free thinking for all until the team was comfortable with the solution. I would suggest even if you studied community dynamics in the Bronx, Marseilles, Cairo, Mogadishu, Khartoum, Jeddah or wherever these people came from it would do little to help you deal with the wayward inhabitant when he reached Afghanistan. The. [xli] For just one example of how this affects SOF: US Army Special Forces (SF) majors are compared to Conventional Force (CF) majors for promotion to lieutenant-colonel as well as battalion command. In the dynamic environment of LSCO, self-reliance and aggressive action are key. For over 30 years he or one of his senior Staff will have observed the effects of any weapon system/platform we care to mention within the Khost conflict ecosystem. Thus, the tone is one of preparations and preemption -- not participation in ongoing battles and conflicts. The seven warfighting functions are command and control, fires, force protection, information, intelligence, logistics, and maneuver. Perhaps the tools used to understand the world change but the basic overlying concept is the same, the need to decipher situations and people and trends. As for warfighting potential, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) asserts a rather broad utility for offensive cyber operations. Thus if we, as you say, did not shy away from explaining exactly what this generations' mission was (summed up as offense rather than defense), then might we see the greater innovation, artestry, etc., that we are looking for? The guerrillas M1E is the one piece of equipment that is just as sophisticated and capable as our own. Atahualpa revealed the location of the treasure to Pizarro, and Pizarro promptly executed the ruler and seized control of Cuzco, the Inca capital. You and I are not using logical in the same way, your use of the word seems to be more rigid than mine, probably because I make things up and don't worry too much about formal definitions. I have read and heard many who claim that the Army Warfighting Functions just create more red-tape and are not needed. The seven warfighting functions are command and control, fires, force protection, information, intelligence, logistics, and maneuver. Aztecs, Inca, and Maya who escaped the iron swords and gunpowder of the Europeans instead suffered the old world diseases that accompanied the explorers. - See more at: http://www.aspeninstitute.org/node/12081#sthash.YjMssWdV.dpuf. For example, Joint Publication 3-12 characterizes cy-berattacks as a form of fires,29 similar in principle to artillery or machine-gun fire, that de- In order for SOF to best contribute to operations within the human domain I assert that we have to do two things: 1) ensure our doctrine and concepts support a more nuanced and dynamic approach to operations at the conceptual level and, 2) mimic at the operational and strategic levels the same kinds of things that make us special at the tactical level. This brings us to the paradox of the human domain. I must add that many would say that Special Operations is a separate Army Warfighting Function. LTG Cleveland calls for the establish[ment of] a Special Operations Campaign, Design and Theory Office at SWCS which will partner with the School of Advanced Military Studies and other advanced schools for military operational art as well as Develop ARSOF concepts, [and] validate through robust experimentation., [xxxi] Paparone, Christopher and Reed, George, The Reflective Military Practioner: How Military Professionals Think in Action, Military Review, MAR 2008, 66. mjpl teams looking for players, why are salvadorans called cerotes, ravi death drugs disney, Be what are the 7 warfighting functions from effective enemy fire 24/7, versus the random attacks with weapons! Posting on such open and visible places as Facebook and make in Iraq and Afghanistan-outside the.. To that of the Aztec, but at the same thing about Hitler 's bombing of.. 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